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[12] Mills, A., Ahlstrom, M., Brower, M., Ellis, A., George, R., Hoff, T., Kroposki, B., Lenox, C., Miller, N., Stein, J., Wan, Y., “Understanding Variability and Uncertainty of Photovoltaics for Integration with the Electric Power System”, (LBNL-2855E), December 2009.

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[14] Kern, E. C., Gulachenski, E. M., Kern, G. A., “Cloud Effects on Distributed Photovoltaic Generation Slow Transients at the Gardner, Massachusetts Photovoltaic Experiment”, IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, Vol. 4, Issue 2, June 1989.

[15] Favuzza, S., Graditi, G., Spertino, F., Vitale, G., “Comparison of Power Quality Impact of Different Photovoltaic Inverters: the viewpoint of the grid”, IEEE ICIT 2004, pp. 542-547.

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[18] “The Challenges of intermittency in North West European power markets”, Extract from a major study by POYRY, March 2011.

[19] Denholm, P., Hand, M., “Grid flexibility and Storage Required to Achieve Very High Penetration of Variable Renewable Electricity”, Elsevier Energy Policy, September 2010.

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[21] Yanagawa, S., Kato, T., Kai, W., Tabata, A., Yokomizu, Y., Okamoto, T., Suzuoki, Y., “Evaluation of Load Frequency Control (LFC) Capacity of Output Fluctuations of Photovoltaic Power Generation Systems Based on Multi-point Observation of Insolation”, Power Engineering Society Meeting 2001.

[22] Achilles, S., Schramm, S., Bebic, J., “Transmission System Performance Analysis for High-Penetration Photovoltaics”, NREL Subcontract Report (NREL/SR-581-42300), February 2008.

[23] Manz, D., Schelenz, O., Chandra, R., Bose, S., Rooij, M., Bebic, J., “Enhanced Reliability of Photovoltaic Systems with Energy Storage and Controls”, NREL Subcontract Report (NREL/SR-581-42299), February 2008.

[24] S. Sarkar, V. Ajjarapu, “MW Resource Assessment Model for a Hybrid Energy Conversion System with Wind and Solar Resources” Oct 2011

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[30] C. Hanley, G. Peek, J. Boyes, G. Klise, J. Stein, D. Ton, T. Duong, “Technology development needs for integrated grid-connected PV systems and electric energy storage” 2009

[31] R. Dunn, P. Hearps, M. Wright, “Molten-Salt Power Towers Newly Commercial Concentrating Solar Storage” 2011

[32] Z. Salameh, B. Borowy, A. Amin, “Photovoltaic module-site matching based on the capacity factors” 1995

[33] D. Manz, O. Schelenz, R. Chandra, S. Bose, M. de Rooij, and J. Bebic, “Enhanced Reliability of Photovoltaic Systems with Energy Storage and Controls” GE Global Research, Subcontract Report NREL/SR-581-42299, February 2008

[34] “An Introduction to Australia’s National Electricity Market,” AEMO, Jul. 2010

[35] T. Kato, T. Inoue, Y. Suzuoki, “Impact of large-scale penetration of photovoltaic power generation systems on fluctuation property of electricity load,” 2010

[36] US Environmental Protection Agency - Energy and You, http://www.epa.gov/cleanenergy/energy-and-you/index.html

[37] Y. Ueda, K. Kurokawa, T. Tanabe, K. Kitamura, H. Sugihara, “Analysis Results of Output Power Loss Due to the Grid Voltage Rise in Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power Generation Systems,” Jul. 2008

[38] Wei-Lin Hsieh, Chia-Hung Lin, Chao-Shun Chen, C.T. Hsu, Te-Tien Ku, Cheng-Ta Tsai, Chin-Ying Ho, “Impact of PV generation to voltage variation and power losses of distribution systems,”, 2011

[39] http://www.megawattsf.com/gridstorage/gridstorage.htm

[40] BSmer, J., Burges, K., Zolotarev, P., Lehner, J., “Impact of Large-scale Distributed Generation on Network Stability During Over-Frequency Events and Development of Mitigation Measures”, September 2011.

[41] UCTE (2007): System disturbance on 4 November 2006. Final Report. Union for the co-ordination of transmission of electricity. Brussels. Available online at https://www.entsoe.eu/fileadmin/user_upload/_library/publications/ce/otherreports/Final-Report-20070130.pdf

[42] UCTE (2003): Final Report of the Investigation Committee on the 28 September 2003 Blackout in Italy. Union for the co-ordination of transmission of electricity. Brussels. Available online at https://www.entsoe.eu/fileadmin/user_upload/_library/publications/ce/otherreports/20040427_UCTE_IC_Final_report.pdf, updated on 28/04/2004, checked on 3/07/2011.

[43] Ari, G. K. And Baghzouz, Y., “Impact of High PV Penetration on Voltage Regulation in Electrical Distribution Systems”, 2011 International Conference on Clean Electrical Power (ICCEP), 14-16 June 2011.

[44] Wan, Y. and Parsons, B. K., “Factors Relevant to Utility Integration of Intermittent Renewable Technologies”, August 1993, NREL/TP-463-4953.

[45] Alquthami, T., Ravindra, H., Faruque, M.O., Steurer, M., Baldwin, T., “Study of Photovoltaic Integration Impact on System Stability Using Custom Model of PV Arrays Integrated with PSS/E”, 2010 North American Power Symposium (NAPS).

[46] Sovacool, B. K., “The intermittency of wind, solar, and renewable electricity generators: Technical barrier or rhetorical excuse?”, Elsevier Utilities Policy, Vol. 17, Issues 3-4, Sept-Dec 2009, pp. 288-296.

[47] Curtright, A. E., Apt, J., “The Character of Power Output from Utility-Scale Photovoltaic Systems”, Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, 2008, Vol. 16, pp. 241-247.

Note: References [48] to [62] are presentations from the IEA PVPS workshops, available at: http://www.iea-pvps.org/index.php?id=58#c283

[48] Brundlinger, R., Mayr, C. and Fechner, H., IEA-PVPS Task 14 -High Penetration of PV Systems in Electricity Grids Work-Plan 2010-2014.

[49] Mayr, C., AIT Austria, Metamorphosis of Power Distribution: The European Meta-PV project, IEA-PVPS Task 14 workshop, Colorado, USA, December 2011.

[50] Frederiksen, K., Danish DSO Midtenergi, Impact of decentralized generation in distribution network in Denmark, IEA-PVPS Task 14 workshop, Colorado, USA, December 2011.

[51] Braun, M., Fraunhofer IWES Germany, Integrating PV in Local Distribution Systems, IEA-PVPS Task 14 workshop, Colorado, USA, December 2011.

[52] Dangelmaier, L., Hawaii Electric Light Company (HELCO), Distributed PV and HELCO Operations, Impacts and Actions, IEA-PVPS Task 14 workshop, Colorado, USA, December 2011.

[53] Ogimoto, K., University of Tokyo, Progress on Japanese Projects, IEA-PVPS Task 14 workshop, Colorado, USA, December 2011.

[54] Vasconcelos, A., EDP Inovacao, High Penetration of PV Systems in Electricity Grids, IEA-PVPS Task 14 workshop, Lisbon, Portugal, May 2011.

[55] Hidalgo, J., RED Electrica de Espana, Expanding visibility and controllability requirements: The solar PV case, IEA-PVPS Task 14 workshop, Lisbon, Portugal, May 2011.

[56] Osorio, J., Rede Electrica Nacional (REN), Integrating large quantities of Renewable Energy Sources in the electricity grid in Portugal, IEA-PVPS Task 14 workshop, Lisbon, Portugal, May 2011.

[57] Yibo, W., Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Science, Demo Projects and Initiatives in China, IEA-PVPS Task 14 workshop, Lisbon, Portugal, May 2011.

[58] Sherwood, R. and Dinkel, A., Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO), Utility Tools and Design Modifications to Mitigate the Impact of PV on the Distribution System, IEA-PVPS Task 14 workshop, Colorado, USA, December 2011.

[59] Domingo, C.M., Universidad Pontificia Comillas, Madrid, Penetration of photovoltaics in distribution networks in Spain, and respective problems, issues and concerns, IEA-PVPS Task 14 workshop, Lisbon, Portugal, May 2011.

[60] Baca, D.A., Excel Energy, CSU 5 MW PV System, IEA-PVPS Task 14 workshop, Colorado, USA, December 2011.

[61] Maciel, J.G., EDP Inovacao, High Penetration of PV Systems in Electricity Grids, IEA-PVPS Task 14 workshop, Lisbon, Portugal, May 2011.

[62] Kroposki, B., NREL, High Penetration Projects in the US, IEA-PVPS Task 14 workshop, Lisbon, Portugal, May 2011.

[63] Watt, M., IT Power Australia, The Australian PV Market and Current Support Policies, APVA Presentation to the Australia-Germany Solar & Wind Energy Industry Conference, Sydney, Australia, 10 May 2010.

[64] AECOM Australia Pty Ltd, Report on “Solar Bonus Scheme - Forecast NSW PV Capacity and Tariff Payments” prepared for Industry & Investment NSW, 25 October 2010.

[65] Hayward, J.A., Graham, P.W. and Campbell, P. K., Report on “Projections of the future costs of electricity generation technologies - An application of CSIRO’s Global and Local Learning Model (GALLM)”, February 2011.

[66] W. T. Jewell, R. Ramakumar, “The effects of moving clouds on electric utilities with dispersed photovoltaic generation”, presented at the IEEE Power Engineering Society 1987 Winter Meeting, New Orleans, 1-6 February, 1987.

[67] CAMS Task Force on Understanding, Prediction, M. & of Cascading Failures, R. (2008), Initial review of methods for cascading failure analysis in electric power transmission systems. In Proceedings of the IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting, pp. 1-8.

[68] Hiskens, I. & Alseddiqui, J. (2006), “Sensitivity, Approximation and Uncertainty in Power System Dynamic Simulation”, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems 21(4), pp.1808-1820.

[69] Canada Power System Outage Task Force (2004) Final Report on the August 14, 2003 Blackout in the United States and Canada: Causes and Recommendations Department of Energy, Washington, DC, and National Resources Canada, available from https://reports.energy.gov.

[70] Amin, M. (2005), “Scanning the Technology: Energy Infrastructure Defense Systems”, In Proceedings of the IEEE 93, 861-875.

[71] Robert H. Lasseter and Paolo Piagi, (2006), Control and Design of Microgrid Components: Final Project Report, Power Systems Engineering Research Center, PSERC Publication 06-03.

[72] Marco Liserre, Remus Teodorescu and Frede Blaabjerg, (2006) Stability of Photovoltaic and Wind Turbine Grid-connected Inverters for a Large Set of Grid Impedance Values, IEEE transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 21, No. 1,, pp.263-272.

[73] Woyte, A., Thong, V.V., Belmans, R., Nijs, J., “Voltage fluctuations on distribution level introduced by photovoltaic systems”, IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion 2006, Vol. 21, pp. 202-209.

[74] Woyte, A., Belmans, R., Nijs, J., “Fluctuations in instantaneous clearness index: analysis and statistics”, Solar Energy 2007, Vol. 81, pp. 195-206.

[75] Curtright, E., Apt, J., “The character of power output from utility-scale photovoltaic systems”, Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications 2008, Vol. 16, pp. 241-247.

[76] Apt, J., “The spectrum of power from wind turbines”, Journal of Power Sources 2007, 169(2), pp. 369-374.

[77] Marcos, J., Luis, M., Lorenzo, E., Alvira, D. and Izco, E., “From irradiance to output power fluctuations: the PV plant as a low pass filter”, Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, Vol. 19, Issue 5, pp. 505-510, August 2011.

[78] Berry, A., Cornforth, D., Powercorp (Bates, G. And Zimmermann, J.), Moore, T., Sayeef, S., “The Viability of Minigrids as Alternative Low-Emissions Energy Networks: Accelerating the deployment of smart minigrids in APP countries”, CSIRO report for the Commonwealth Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, June 2011.

[79] Ergon Energy, “Renewable Energy Network Benefit Statement”, available at http://www.ergon.com.au/community--and--our-network/network-management-and-projects/renewable-energy-network-benefit-statement

[80] Wiser, R., Bolinger, M., “2009 Wind Technologies Market Report”, LBNL-3716E, August 2010.

[81] Eto, J., Nelson-Hoffman, J., Torres, C., Hirth, S., Yinger, B., Kueck, J., Kirby, B., Bernier, C., Wright, R., Barat, A., Watson, D., “Demand response spinning reserve demonstation”, Technical Report LBNL-62761, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, May 2007.

[82] Kearney, D., Morse, F., “Bold, Decisive Times for Concentrating Solar Power”, Solar Today, 24 (4), 2010, pp. 32-35.

[83] Ela, E., Kirby, B., “ERCOT Event on February 26, 2008: Lessons Learned”, NREL Technical Report (NREL/TP-500-43373), July 2008.

[84] “Rooftop solar panels overloading electricity grid”, The Australian, October 13, 2011, available at http://www.theaustralian.com.au/national-affairs/carbon-plan/rooftop-solar-panels-overloading-electricity-grid/story-fn99tjf2-1226165360822