A.6 Risk Elimination and Reduction

If risk levels are found to be unacceptable when compared to risk tolerability criteria, there are further strategies which can be employed to reduce risks further. There are two areas: reducing the frequency of an event, and reducing the severity of an event, either or both of which can be used to reduce overall risk. This section provides a non-exhaustive list of possible mitigation strategies.

A.6.1 Reducing event frequency

By understanding possible causes of failure, it is possible to reduce the likely frequency of an event. For example through:

- Protecting against third party interference (e.g. thicker pipe or protective overburden at vulnerable pipeline locations – in the offshore context, this could include major shipping routes).

- Protecting against corrosive failure of equipment (e.g. designing appropriately for wet environments, moisture control, thicker materials, suitable inspection regimes).

- Protecting against blockages and other operational issues (e.g. appropriate design of blowdown vessels and vents to prevent blockages).

- Proactive prevention of leaks (e.g. onsite and pipeline walk-arounds for small leaks on platforms; QA procedures, change management procedures for plant).

A.6.2 Reducing event severity

Once an incident has occurred, the severity of that incident can be reduced by a number of mitigation strategies. Examples include:

- Appropriate staff training and procedures (e.g. emergency plans, confined space entry procedures, low temperature awareness).

- Reducing the inventory released (e.g. isolating inventory using block valves, appropriate monitoring).

- Appropriate emergency plans (e.g. including how to inform potentially impacted individuals of a potential hazard, etc).