6.1 Introduction

The transportation of carbon dioxide is a common occurrence, predominantly on a small scale via road, rail or in some cases by sea. For large scale transportation pipelines are common with 6 000 km worldwide. It is when compared to hazardous liquid and natural gas lines a very small distance covered, however the pipelines have been in place since the 1970s. There is therefore a small body of evidence on the design and operation of carbon dioxide dedicated pipelines, with design information being more publicly available. The following section outlines general guidelines for consideration in designing onshore carbon dioxide pipelines. It only addresses issues which would be deviations from normal pipeline design. In particular, issues such as: leak detection; pipeline integrity monitoring; safety management systems; risk evaluation; route surveillance requirements; emergency response planning; operations and maintenance issues; and repair techniques are all adequately covered within current pipeline design practice.

This section does not cover issues around the use of odorants within carbon dioxide pipelines as it is not currently allowed under the OSPAR rules, nor European practice for high pressure natural gas pipelines. It also does not include issues of material standards for material selection. We note that there are various organisations which produce material standards test methodologies which may be of interest including ISO, DIN, API, ASTM, ASME and NORSOK.