Introduction and Overview
The overall objective of the Global Technology Roadmap for carbon capture and storage (CCS) in industry is to advance the global development and uptake of low carbon technologies in industry needed to stabilize(GHG) concentrations in the atmosphere to prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system; specifically:
- To provide relevant stakeholders with a vision of industrial CCS up to 2050
- To strengthen the capacities of various stakeholders with regard to industrial CCS
- To inform policymakers and investors about the potential of CCS technology.1
This sectoral assessment supports this road mapping activity by specifically providing as input a summary assessment of the potential opportunities and constraints for the application of carbon dioxide(CO2-EOR) associated with CCS applied to industrial sources of CO2 emissions.
This sectoral assessment builds upon on information from three previous reports:
- Advanced Resources International, Inc. and Melzer Consulting, Optimization of CO2 Storage in CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery Projects, report prepared for the U.K. Department of Energy & Climate Change (DECC), Office of Carbon Capture & Storage, November 30, 2010 (http://www.decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/what_we_do/uk_supply/energy_mix/ccs/ccs.aspx)
- IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme, CO2 Storage in Depleted Oilfields: Global Application Criteria for Carbon Dioxide Enhanced Oil Recovery, Report IEA/CON/08/155, Prepared by Advanced Resources International, Inc. and Melzer Consulting, August 31, 2009 (http://www.CO2storage.org/Reports/2009-12.pdf)
- U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, Storing CO2 and Producing Domestic Crude Oil with Next Generation CO2-EOR Technology: An Update, report DOE/NETL-2010/1417 prepared by Advanced Resources International, April 2010 (http://www.netl.doe.gov/energy-analyses/refshelf/PubDetails.aspx?Action=View&PubId=309)
This report begins with a brief overview of CO2-EOR, how it works, under what conditions is it deployed, how it compares to other approaches for oil development and production, how it has evolved over time, and how CO2 is utilized over time in an CO2-EOR development and production operation. This is followed by an overview of the CO2-EOR industry, describing where and how much oil is currently produced from the application of CO2-EOR, and how the CO2-EOR industry --and its key participants --is structured. This is followed by a detailed discussion of the economics of CO2-EOR, including an overview of the baseline costs associated with CO2-EOR, as well as the relative cost impact of CO2-EOR on CCS. The next section provides a summary of a recent assessment of the global potential for CO2-EOR, and the relative location of industrial CO2 sources to basins amenable to CO2-EOR. This is followed by a description of current activities and plans related to the joint deployment of CO2-EOR and CCS, including government sponsored research, development, and demonstration projects, along with planned commercial projects. Finally, the current barriers to greater CO2-EOR implementation are discussed; including the current lack of CO2 supplies for substantial growth in oil production from CO2-EOR, existing barriers specific to CO2-EOR project implementation and specific to CO2-EOR with CCS, including potential barriers that may be associated with the quality specifications for industrial CO2 use for CO2-EOR.
1United Nation Industrial Development Organization, Carbon Capture and Storage in Industrial Applications: Technology Synthesis Report Working Paper, November 2010 (http://www.unido.org/fileadmin/user_media/Services/Energy_and_Climate_Change/Energy_Efficiency/CCS/synthesis_final.pdf