4. Rotterdam, the Netherlands

Stage: EXECUTE/IDENTIFIED (greenhouse use in execute stage, storage part still in identified stage)

Operation start up: 2011

Capacity: 330 000 tonnes/year

Capture Facility: Ethanol production

Capture Type: High purity source

Transport Type: Pipeline

Storage Type: Used in greenhouses

In the port of Rotterdam, the Rotterdam Climate Initiative is planning an extensive carbon capture and storage network, consisting of all large point sources in the region. The goal is to phase in CCS during this decade and deliver a 50 % cut in Rotterdam’s emissions by 2025. As part of this effort, a combined pipeline and ship transportation network is under development.

One of the first steps is to link the biogenic emissions from an ethanol plant operated by Abengoa, to greenhouses nearby. The greenhouses utilize the CO2 to augment plant growth. This CO2 will be re-released back into the atmosphere when the greenhouse plants decay or are consumed, and as a consequence this results in no permanent negative emissions. Still, the project is included in our overview, since it is part of the larger Rotterdam network effort which has as a main focus to store CO2 underground in the near future. The first step to build pipelines between the ethanol plant and the greenhouses is vital in achieving the infrastructure needed for further steps, where true negative emissions can be achieved.