%wt Percentage weight
ABLE Alkalinity based on low energy
ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials
AU$ Australian dollars
bbl Barrel
bn Billion
CaCO3 Calcium carbonate
CaO Calcium oxide
CAPEX Capital expenditure
CARMA Carbon monitoring for action
CCGT Combined cycle gas turbine
CCS Carbon capture and storage
CCUS Carbon capture, use and storage
CDM Clean Development Mechanism
CEH Chemical Economics Handbook
CER Certified emissions reductions credits
CMAP Carbonate mineralisation by aqueous precipitation
CO Carbon monoxide
CO2 Carbon dioxide
CR5 Counter rotating ring receiver reactor recuperator
CSA Canadian Standards Association
DOE Department of Energy (United States)
ECBM Enhanced coal bed methane
EGS Enhanced geothermal systems
EJ Exa joule
EOR Enhanced oil recovery
ETS Emission trading scheme
EU ETS European Union Emission’s Trading Scheme
EUR Euro (currency)
G8 The Group of Eight (Forum of senior officials from eight member states: France, Germany,
Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, United States of America, Canada and Russia)
GHG Greenhouse gas
Gtpa Gigatonne per annum
GW Gigawatt
GWe Gigawatt electrical
H2 Hydrogen
H2O Water
ha hectare
HCOOH Formic acid
HDR Hot dry rocks
HFR Hot fractured rocks
IEA International Energy Association
IGCC Integrated gasification combined cycle (power plant)
in Inch
IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
K Potassium
kg Kilogram
km Kilometre
lb Pound
LCA Life cycle assessment
m Metre
MgCO3 Magnesium carbonate
MgO Magnesium oxide
MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology
mm Millimetre
MEF Major Economies Forum
MMP Minimum miscibility pressure
MMV Monitoring, measurement and verification
MPa Mega pascals
Mt Million tonnes
Mt/y Million tonnes per year
Mtoe Million tonne of oil equivalent
Mtpa Million tonnes per annum
MW Megawatt
MWe Megawatt electrical
MWh Mega watt hour
N Nitrogen
NaOH Sodium hydroxide
NETL National Energy Technology Laboratory
NOAK Nth of a kind
NPK Nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium (fertiliser)
NRC-IRAP National Research Council of Canada Industrial Research Assistance Program
NY New York
NZ New Zealand
°C Degrees Celsius
OCAP Organic carbon dioxide for assimilation of plants
OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
OPEX Operational expenditure
P Phosphorus
pa per annum
PB Parsons Brinckerhoff
PBR Photo-bioreactor
pH Measure of acidity
psig Pounds per square inch gauge
R&D Research and development
SCCO2 Supercritical carbon dioxide
SCM Supplementary Cementitious Material
t tonne
t/d tonnes per day
t/t tonne/tonne
TAP Technology Action Plan
tCO2 tonnes of carbon dioxide
TiO2 Titanium dioxide
tpa tonnes per annum
tpd tonnes per day
UAN Urea-ammonium nitrate
US United States
USA United States of America
US$ United States dollar – Monetary values are in US$ unless otherwise stated