Demonstration projects

Table L.1 Demonstration

Project name/company Technology Description Funding Location Reference
Touchstone Research Laboratory Ltd Algae cultivation This project will pilot-test an open-pond algae production technology that can capture at least 60 per cent of flue gas CO2 from an industrial coal-fired source to produce biofuel and other high value co-products. A novel phase change material incorporated in touchstone’s technology will cover the algae pond surface to regulate daily temperature, reduce evaporation, and control the infiltration of invasive species. Lipids extracted from harvested algae will be converted to a bio-fuel, and an anaerobic digestion process will be developed and tested for converting residual biomass into methane. The host site for the pilot project is Cedar Lane Farms in Wooster, Ohio. DOE Share: US$6.24M Triadelphia, W. Va  
Solazyme Algae cultivation The company uses algal biotechnology to renewably produce clean fuels, chemicals, foods and health science products. Solazyme’s advanced and proprietary technology uses algae to produce oils and biomaterials in standard fermentation    
MBD Algae cultivation MBD technology recycles captured industrial flue-gas emissions into oils suitable for manufacture of high grade plastics, transport fuel and nutritious feed for livestock and monogastric consumption.MBD Energy has reached agreements with three of Australia’s largest greenhouse gas emitters:
  • Loy Yang A (Vic);
  • Eraring Energy (NSW); and
  • Tarong Energy (Qld).

The agreements are for the planning and provision of a pilot MBD Energy Carbon Capture and Recycling (CCR) plant at each location.

A2BE Carbon Capture Algae cultivation A2BE Carbon Capture is developing bio-secure, scalable, climate adaptive, and highly cost effective technology for producing valuable fuel and food from CO2 using algal photosynthesis and bio-harvesting. The core of this technology is embodied in the published US patent application 20070048848: ‘Method, apparatus and system for biodiesel production from algae’ as well as a separate mechanical and a PCT patent application.   CO, USA
Honeywell UOP Algae cultivation The project, managed by the DOE’s National Energy technology Laboratory, will capture CO2 from the exhaust stacks of the Hopewell caprolactam facility and deliver it in a controlled and efficient process to a pond near the plant, where algae will be grown using automated control systems from Honeywell Process Solutions and technology developed by New Zealand’s Aquaflow Bionomic. DOE: US$1.5M VA, USA
Carbon Capture Corporation Algae cultivation Carbon Capture Corporation’s pilot facility uses two Capstone C330 (30 kW each) running on propane and used to generate emissions - resembling those from a natural gas fired power facility - that are fed into one of the two dedicated 240,000-gallon raceways where Spirulina algae is produced and harvested. In addition to actual production data and costs, The pilot test is expected to provide valuable insight regarding air and water chemistry associated with the process.The Company operates open algae ponds with a total capacity of 8 million gallons located on an existing 40-acre Algae Research Center (ARC) which is part of a 326-acre research and development facility in Imperial Valley, California.   CA, USA
Algenol and the Linde Group Algae cultivation Algenol and Linde have agreed to collaborate in a joint development project to identify the optimum management of carbon dioxide and oxygen for Algenol’s unique algae and photobioreactor technology. This cooperation will see the companies join forces to develop cost-efficient technologies that capture, store, transport and supply carbon dioxide for Algenol’s proprietary process as well as remove oxygen from the photobioreactor.
Algenol and the Dow Chemical Company Algae cultivation Dow and Algenol are exploring ways to reduce the cost and improve the efficiency of capturing carbon dioxide for use in producing ethanol or other high value organic chemicals.
Algenol and Biofields Algae cultivation BioFields is a Mexican business group dedicated to the production of ethanol from hybrid blue-green algae, sunlight, CO2 capture, non-agricultural land and salt water to help in the fight against climate change and offer an alternative to meet future energy demand with the highest levels of sustainability.   Mexico
RWE Algae cultivation Near the Niederaussem power plant, RWE power has erected a system for binding CO2 from the power plant into micro-algae. In this process the flue gas is drawn from the power plant unit and transported through the pipes to the micro-algae production plant. The CO2 contained in the flue gas is dissolved in the algae suspension and absorbed by the algae for growth. The algae are removed and further investigated for conversion into chemically or energetically usable products.   Germany
Alcoa, Inc Bauxite residue carbonation Alcoa’s pilot-scale process will demonstrate the high efficiency conversion of flue gas CO2 into soluble bicarbonate and carbonate using an in-duct scrubber system featuring an enzyme catalyst. The bicarbonate/carbonate scrubber blow down can be sequestered as solid mineral carbonates after reacting with alkaline clay, a by-product of aluminium refining. The carbonate product can be utilised as construction fill material, soil amendments, and green fertiliser. Alcoa will demonstrate and optimise the process at their Point Comfort, Texas aluminium refining plant. DOE Share: US$12M Alcoa Center, Pa  
Calera Corporation Carbonate mineralisation Calera Corporation is developing a process that directly mineralises CO2 in flue gas to carbonates that can be converted into useful construction materials. An existing CO2 absorption facility for the project is operational at Moss Landing, California, for capture and mineralisation. The project team will complete the detailed design, construction, and operation of a building material production system that at smaller scales has produced carbonate-containing aggregates suitable as construction fill or partial feedstock for use at cement production facilities. The building material production system will ultimately be integrated with the absorption facility to demonstrate viable process operation at a significant scale. DOE Share: US$19.9M Los Gatos, Ca, US  
Skyonic Corporation Carbonate mineralisation Skyonic Corporation will continue the development of SkyMine® mineralisation technology - a potential replacement for existing scrubber technology. The SkyMine process transforms CO2 into solid carbonate and/or bicarbonate materials while also removing sulfur oxides, nitrogen dioxide, mercury and other heavy metals from flue gas streams of industrial processes. Solid carbonates are ideal for long-term, safe above ground storage without pipelines, subterranean injection, or concern about CO2 re-release to the atmosphere. The project team plans to process CO2-laden flue gas from a Capital Aggregates, Ltd. cement manufacturing plant in San Antonio, Texas. DOE Share: US$25M Austin, Texas    
Carbon Sense Solutions Concrete curing Carbon Sense Solutions is partnering with Air Liquide, The Shaw Group in Nova Scotia, Canada, and the Government of Nova Scotia to demonstrate and optimise the cost-saving, technological and environmental merits of its Carbon Sense Concrete Curing process. With financial competitiveness in mind, Carbon Sense Solutions’ approach limits the need to steam-cure products, which reduces energy costs for manufacturers and increases productivity. This transformative process operates by consuming substantial amounts of CO2 from onsite and neighbouring combustion sources.   Nova Scotia, Canada
Burlington ResourcesUS Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy technology Laboratory Advanced Resources Intl Enhanced coal bed methane Burlington Resources operated the Allison Unit as the first ‘commercial-scale’ field project of ECBM technology using CO2. This site consists of 16 producer wells and 4 injectors. CO2 injection operations commenced in 1995, providing a substantial history for understanding the in-situ reservoir mechanics associated with CO2 injection.Development and demonstration of application of ECBM reservoir modelling techniques continued with field studies from 2000-1008 to understand the reservoir mechanisms of CO2 injection into coal seams, demonstrate the practical effectiveness of the ECBM and sequestration processes and an engineering capability to simulate them, evaluate sequestration economics, and document field procedures. US DOE Share: US$1.4MPrivate share: US$5.76M San Juan County, Southern New Mexico  
GreenFire Energy / Enhanced Energy Resources Enhanced geothermal systems Joint venture of GreenFire Energy with Enhanced Oil Resources joint plan to build a 2MW CO2 based demonstration plant near the Arizona-new Mexico border. Drilling of wells to access hot rock was proposed to commence in 2010. The proposed location is projected to yield enough heat to generate 800 MW of power with potential to absorb much of the CO2 generated by six large coal-fired plants in the region.      
Geodynamics Limited Enhanced geothermal systems Geodynamics Limited Innamincka ‘Deeps’ Joint Venture with Origin Energy. A 1 MW power plant has been constructed at Habanero. Electricity generation is expected to occur by early 2012 following the successful completion of Habanero 4 and Habanero 5 (reservoirs) - which will be the first Enhanced Geothermal Systems in Australia.Due to make final investment decision on proposed $300 million, 25MW geothermal demonstration plant in the Cooper Basin by early 2013, after 12 months of successful operation of the Habanero closed loop. (This is two years later than previously stated).Geodynamics is targeting production of more than 500 MW by 2018, with capacity extending to 10,000 MW - The equivalent of 10 to 15 coal-fired power stations.Geodynamics Ltd, is one of about 16 companies active in geothermal power generation in Australia (and are the most advanced).      
Symyx technologies Enhanced geothermal systems Symyx technologies are studying the chemical interactions between geothermal rocks, supercritical carbon dioxide and water.Testing the use of supercritical CO2 as the working fluid in geothermal systems is projected to commence in 2013.      
Phycal, LLC Liquid fuel Phycal will complete development of an integrated system designed to produce liquid biocrude fuel from microalgae cultivated with captured CO2. The algal biocrude can be blended with other fuels for power generation or processed into a variety of renewable drop-in replacement fuels such as jet fuel and biodiesel. Phycal will design, build, and operate a CO2-to-algae-to-biofuels facility at a nominal thirty acre site in Central O’ahu (near Wahiawa and Kapolei), Hawaii. Hawaii Electric Company will qualify the biocrude for boiler use, and Tesoro will supply CO2 and evaluate fuel products. DOE Share: US$24.24M Highland Heights, Ohio, US  
Carbon Recycling International Liquid fuel Icelandic company Carbon Recycling International (CRI) is in the process of building a plant that will capture carbon dioxide from industrial emissions and converts carbon dioxide into clean Renewable Methanol (RM) fuel. RM can be blended with different grades of gasoline for existing automobiles and hybrid flexible vehicles.   Iceland www.carbon
Carbon Sciences Liquid fuel Carbon Sciences is developing a breakthrough CO2 based gas-to-liquids technology to transform greenhouse gases into liquid portable fuels, such as gasoline, diesel and jet fuel.   CA, USA
Mantra Venture Group Liquid fuel In using renewable energy, Mantra’s Electroreduction of Carbon Dioxide (ERC) technology combines captured CO2 with water to produce high value materials, including: formic acid, formate salts, oxalic acid, and methanol. In addition, companies adopting ERC stand to make significant profit from its by-products.Mantra has successfully completed the year-long development program for its ERC technology and the company is now preparing for its first-ever on-site demonstration project. National Research Council of Canada Industrial Research Assistance Program (NRC-IRAP): unknown amount WA, USA
Joule Unlimited Liquid fuel Joule’s Helioculture™ platform combines breakthroughs in genome engineering, bioprocessing and hardware engineering to convert sunlight and waste CO2 directly into clean, fungible diesel fuel, bypassing the limitations of biofuel production. The novel SolarConverter™system is optimised to facilitate the entire continuous process, scaling to desired output levels with no dependency on raw material feedstocks, agricultural land, fresh water or crops.The Texas-based pilot facility is expected to be up and running mid 2010, centred on producing clean, fungible diesel. A demonstration facility is expected to follow the pilot plant in the summer of 2011, with a commercial facility in 2012 centred on diesel. Sims said Joule expects to be fully commercial by 2013. Flagship Ventures: US$30M MA, USA
Sandia National Lab Liquid fuel Using concentrated solar energy to reverses combustion, Sandia National Laboratories chemically ‘reenergises’ carbon dioxide into carbon monoxide using concentrated solar power. The carbon monoxide could then be used to make hydrogen or serve as a building block to synthesise a liquid combustible fuel, such as methanol or even gasoline, diesel and jet fuel.An alliance of industry, academic and government organisations, formed to commercialise technologies that will utilise concentrated solar energy to convert waste carbon dioxide into diesel fuel.The alliance team members include Sandia National Laboratories, Renewable Energy Institute International (REII), Pacific Renewable Fuels, Pratt Whitney Rocketdyne (a United technologies Division), Quanta Services, Desert Research Institute and Clean Energy Systems. In addition, commercial partners have signed on to advance work on the first round of commercial plants.A solar reforming system is currently being demonstrated in Sacramento, California, and demonstrations will continue both at Sandia’s facilities in New Mexico and at a power plant project site in Bakersfield, California. Planning for the first round of commercial plants is under way at several locations in the US the project team anticipates that deployment of the first commercial plants can begin in 2013. National Energy technology Laboratory : Unknown amount Various, USA
Novomer Inc. Polymer processing Teaming with Albemarle Corporation and the Eastman Kodak Company, Novomer will develop a process for converting waste CO2 into a number of polycarbonate products (plastics) for use in the packaging industry. Novomer’s novel catalyst technology enables CO2 to react with petrochemical epoxides to create a family of thermoplastic polymers that are up to 50 per cent by weight CO2. The project has the potential to convert CO2 from an industrial waste stream into a lasting material that can be used in the manufacture of bottles, films, laminates, coatings on food and beverage cans, and in other wood and metal surface applications. Novomer has secured site commitments in Rochester, NY, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, Orangeburg, SC and Ithaca, NY where Phase 2 work will be performed. DOE Share: US$18.42M Ithaca, NY