5.1 CO2 sources in Sri Lanka
The IEAGHG R&D programme CO2 sources database indicates that three categories of major CO2 sources are present in Sri Lanka.
5.1.1 Power plants
Electricity demand in Sri Lanka is increasing by about 10% annually, see http://www.fabm.gov.lk/downloads/Norochcholai.pdf. Sri Lanka produces 37% of its electricity from hydropower and the remainder from fossil fuel-fired power plants. There are 6 major fossil fuel-fired power plants in the country, all of which are oil fired. These 6 plants have annual total estimated emissions of 1.7 Mt CO2.
Because of the high cost of, and demand for, electricity, a 900 MW coal-fired power plant is under construction at Norochcholai in northwest Sri Lanka, the first stage of which is set to add an initial 300 MW of power to the national grid by the end of 2010. The plant will use imported coal.
Further coal-fired power plants are planned. A press release from the Indian High Commission in Colombo on 29 December 2006, stated that a Memorandum of Agreement was signed between NTPC Ltd., (a Government of India Undertaking), Ceylon Electricity Board and the Government of Sri Lanka for setting up of a 500 MW coal based thermal power plant at Trincomalee. The power plant is expected to commence operations from 2011. The process of site selection in Trincomalee commenced with the signing of the Agreement.
5.1.2 Cement plants
The IEAGHG R&D programme CO2 sources database indicates that there are two major cement plants in Sri Lanka, which were emitting an estimated annual total of 611 Kt CO2. The plant at Puttalam on the NW coast is the larger, with emissions estimated at 419 Kt CO2 per year. The plant at Kankesanturai, near Jaffna, was estimated to have annual emissions of 192 Kt CO2 but is currently closed.
The only other major CO2 source in the database is the oil refinery at Sapugaskanda, near Colombo, which emits an estimated 458 Kt CO2 per annum.
The total annual emissions of CO2 from large point sources in Sri Lanka are very small, and estimated to be approximately 2.6 Mt. These will be increased by the operation of new coal-fired power plant, but national emissions will still be very small in global terms.
All major point sources of CO2 in Sri Lanka that are recorded in the IEAGHG R&D Programme CO2 sources database are shown in Figure 5.1.