4.1 CO2 sources in Bangladesh
Total CO2 emissions from large point sources in Bangladesh recorded in the IEAGHG R&D programme database amount to some 17 Mt CO2. The electrical power generation sector has the largest sectoral anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions in Bangladesh (Table 4.1), which amount to 15.6 Mt CO2. Most power generation is fuelled by natural gas (81%) and diesel, and there is a small contribution from hydro. In recent years a coal-based power station has been built close to the Barapukuria coal mine in NW Bangladesh and more are planned. Nevertheless, all power projects under construction are natural gas-based and located in the eastern part of the country.
The other major point sources are the two large cement works and the refinery at Chittagong.
There is a possibly significant seasonal emission in winter from small-scale (manual) brick manufacturing, which is disseminated throughout the country, although there is a significant concentration around Dhaka. Household gas burners may also contribute but there is little data available for either of these sources.
Table 4.1: The 20 largest point sources of CO2 in Bangladesh.
|No.||Sector||Installation name||Latitude||Longitude||Estimated annual CO2 emissions (kilotonnes)||Status|
|4||Refinery||Eastern Refinery Ltd||22||92||983||Open|
|15||Cement||Lafarge Surma Cement||24.05||91.08||262||Open|
The state-owned Bangladesh Power Development Board initially owned all the power stations in Bangladesh. However, from 1998 private power companies (Independent Power Producers, IPP) started supplying power to the national grid. Additionally, the Rural Electrification Board owns one power station which also provides power to the national grid. Most of the power stations are gas-based steam turbine generators and high speed diesel-based gas turbines. Later combined cycle gas turbines were established. In 2005-06 Bangladesh’s first coal-based power plant was put into operation, at Barapukuria in Dinajpur, based on the coal from Barapukuria Coal Mine.
The present installed generation capacity is 5275 MW. However, there is always a power shortage in the country. Indigenous gas-based generation is 4301MW (81.54%), hydro capacity is 230MW (4.36%), liquid fuel-based capacity is 494MW (9.36%), and coal-based generation is 250MW (4.74%), (Source BPDB).
Annual CO2 emissions from gas-based plant in 2006 are estimated at 15.071 Mt. A few units always remain out of the grid due to maintenance.
The national power sector plan, drawn up in 1995, indicates that, after installation of new gas-based power plant, in 2020 the power generation capacity of gas-based plants is expected to stand at 6150 MW and the estimated CO2 emission will be 21.55 Mt.
In Bangladesh, power plants typically comprise several ‘units’, in many cases burning different fossil fuels. Where a unit generates power utilizing dual-fuel combustion, the power produced in KWh by each type of fuel have been separated, and the relevant emissions factor used. The highest capacity single gas-fired units are 450 MW and the smallest is 20 MW. Power generation using diesel is mainly used in standby generators in industries and commercial buildings. The estimated installed capacity is reported to be around 1500 MW. It is difficult to calculate emissions as these units do not run on a continuous basis and operational data is not readily available. It must however, be emphasised that due to the acute power shortage in the country, local generation will be increased steadily and in the future will be a significant emitter that will have to be taken in consideration.
The general convention for calculating CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels for the production of electricity involves multiplying the appropriate emission factor by the production of electricity of each power plant in KWh. The de-rated power plants of capacity between 800-900 MW contribute significantly more CO2 than the recently built Combined Cycle Plants.
There are 10 fertilizer plants in Bangladesh of which seven produce Urea, one TSP and two DAP. The CO2 generation from the process is very small and therefore their contribution to national emissions is negligible.
Each of the plants has its own in-house power generation unit but these are generally small, ranging between 16-24 MW. They are used primarily to run critical units. The contribution to national CO2 emissions from these units is small. A very few SSP type fertilizer plants are in operation but these do not have large in-house power generation facilities.
In 2004, natural gas consumption in the fertilizer sector was 12821 million m3 (source BCIC).
With over 13 plants scattered over the country, the Bangladesh cement industry produced 4.6 million tonnes of Portland cement in 2006.
Calcination takes place in two plants only. Both of them are located in the Sylhet area (NE Bangladesh). The Chattak Cement Co. Limited has capacity of 150,000 T/yr and Surma Lafarge Cement Limited has 600,000 T/yr.
There are 11 other units which import clinker from abroad and grind it in Bangladesh. The non-clinker-producing plants’ contribution to national CO2 emissions is insignificant.
CO2 emissions from the cement sector are estimated to be between 438-648 Ktn/Yr.
Bangladesh has one oil refinery consisting of two relatively small capacity units. The existing refinery has about 1.5 million tonnes refining capacity. Its existing units produce 665kt and 318kt CO2 per year respectively. An additional refinery may be established on the same premises by 2010. When the planned bigger capacity unit is installed CO2 generation will be more than doubled, because the present capacity meets only 33% of the country’s requirements and the new unit is planned to meet the country’s full oil demand.
18.104.22.168 HEAVY INDUSTRY
Apart from the sectors described above, there is very little heavy industry in Bangladesh. The main industrial growth is in the ready-made garments and textile sector. The small iron and steel industry consumes some gas but its contribution to national CO2 emissions is thought to be insignificant.
22.214.171.124 BRICK FIELDS:
In Bangladesh bricks are produced using coal or firewood as fuel. Brick manufacture is seasonal, taking place in the winter, and disseminated through the whole country, although there is a concentration of kilns around Dhaka. There is no data available on carbon dioxide emissions from these kilns.
Prior to the current study, very little information was available on industrial CO2 emissions in Bangladesh. The current study indicates that there are clusters of power plants in the Ashuganj and Ghorashal belt (Lat 24N, Long 90.5E), close to the capital Dhaka, in the central part of Bangladesh. There is a probability that, within the next ten years, another cluster may develop in the north of Bangladesh where coal is available, which will be used to generate power.