3.1 CO2 sources in Pakistan
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions inhave been documented in some detail in studies including: Hagler Bailly Pakistan’s (HBP) “National Emissions and Sinks Study” in 1996; The Asian Development Bank’s (ADB) “The Asia Least-cost Greenhouse Gas Abatement Strategy (ALGAS)” in 1998; The Ministry of Environment’s (MoE) “Pakistan’s Initial National Communication on Climate Change” in November 2003. Total CO2 emissions in Pakistan in 2004 were 1255.67 million tonnes in 2004 (United Nations Statistical Division 2007).
HBP’s study includes a detailed GHG inventory and GHG mitigation policy options. The ADB ALGAS project studied national GHG emissions and prepared a detailed analysis of GHG abatement options in conjunction with national development objectives. The MoE’s initial communication document identifies sources and sinks of direct and indirect GHGs, and supplies emissions figures for various sectors.
In this study, emissions data from various industrial processes and their associated emissions factors are used to produce estimated carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions figures, on a plant-wise basis. This data has been used to update the IEAGHG R&D programme’s CO2 sources inventory for Pakistan. The largest constraint is a general dearth of plant-level information. Plant-wise production figures are not usually available; accessible statistics tend to only provide total production. As required by the database, lat/long coordinates to an accuracy of up to two decimal places have been provided for CO2 point sources. While there is scope for increasing accuracy, maps with more precise coordinates are unavailable.
Total CO2 emissions recorded from large point sources in the updated database are 45 million tonnes per annum.
Plant-wise data for the following sectors has been updated in the IEAGHG CO2 sources inventory:
- Ammonia (fertilizer plants)
- Iron and steel
- Gas processing
126.96.36.199 AMMONIA (FERTILIZER PLANTS)
Urea is the most commonly produced fertilizer in Pakistan. It has not proved possible to calculate emissions factors for other fertilizers; however it is safe to assume that their contribution to CO2 emissions is negligible as they are produced in much smaller quantities, and are mostly imported (Table 3.1).
|Company name||City||Urea||DAP||MAP||CAN||AS||NP||SSP 16%||SSP 18%||NPK|
|Dawood Hercules||Near Sheikhupura||x||Imported|
|Engro||Dist. Daharki, Ghotki||x||Imported|
|Engro||Port Qasim Karachi||Imported||Imported||x|
|NFC Pak-American||Iskanderabad, Daudkhel||x||Imported||x|
|NFC Lyallpur Chemicals & Fertilizers (Pvt.) Ltd.||Faisalabad||Imported||NoProd|
|NFC Lyall Chemicals & Fertilizer (Pvt.) Ltd.||Jaranwalla||Imported||x|
|NFC Hazara Phosphate Fertilizers (Pvt.) Ltd.||Haripur||Imported||NoProd||x|
|FFC||Goth Machhi, dist. Rahim Yar Khan||x||x|
|FFC||Mirpur Mathelo, Dist. Ghotki||NoProd|
|FFC-Jordan Fertilizer Co. Ltd.||x||x|
DAP: Diammonium Phosphate; MAP: Monoammonium Phosphate, CAN: Calcium Ammonium Nitrate; AS: Ammonium Sulphate; NP: Nitrogen Phosphate; SSP: Single Super Phosphate, NPK: Nitrogen, Potassium, Phosphorous.
NoProd: No production in 2004
Available statistics do not always show the amount of ammonia used in the production of fertilizer in Pakistan (or the installed ammonia production capacity). Wherever this was the case, plant-wise data for fertilizer production was obtained and a conversion factor with which the amount of ammonia originally used can be derived was calculated. The procedure was as follows:
Thirty-four molecules of ammonia are required to produce 60 molecules of urea. The conversion factor is therefore 34/60. Multiplying this factor by any amount in kilotonnes of urea will yield the amount of ammonia consumed to produce that amount of urea.
Finally, using an emissions factor, one can procure an estimated figure for CO2 emissions from that plant. Below is a list of assumptions and constraints:
- It was assumed all fertilizer plants run at full capacity 365 days a year (this generally is the case with fertilizer plants).
- All figures used are from the period 2003–2004 to maintain consistency.
- The emissions factor 0.74 Kg of CO2 per Kg of Ammonia has been taken from an ammonia entry for Pakistan from the IEA GHG database to derive Pakistan-specific estimates. Where a plant produces both urea and another fertilizer, and ammonia production is not specified by the company, ammonia capacity has been calculated using only urea production figures.
- Where there is a difference between installed ammonia capacity and calculated ammonia capacity, the larger figure was used for calculating the final CO2 emission level.
- Ammonia capacity is calculated from actual or installed urea production, whichever is available. There were no instances where both were available.
With over 20 plants in operation at any given time, scattered mainly over the Punjab and Sindh, Pakistan’s cement industry produces 15.15 million tonnes of cement (FBS, 2006). As in the rest of the world, Pakistan mainly produces Portland cement.
For the Pakistan cement industry update, the IPCC standard CO2 emissions factor for clinker production has been used, assuming the following:
- The fraction of lime (CaO) used in the clinker is approximately 64.6% (IPCC, 1996)
- The molecular weight ratio of CO2/CaO is 0.785
When multiplied, these figures give the final emission factor for clinker, 0.5071 tonnes of CO2
per tonne of clinker.
Ethanol had not been accounted for in the Pakistan portion of the previous IEAGHG database. However, the demand for industrial alcohol and ethanol as an alternative fuel has increased in the EU (among the largest importers of Pakistan’s ethanol) in recent years. Pakistan now operates 17 distilleries (three in the North-West Frontier Province, seven in the Punjab, and seven in Sindh) with capacities ranging from 3.5 to 42 million litres a year (capacity figures have been used in the database calculations due to the absence of production data). An emission factor of 0.799 gigagrams of CO2 per million litres is used in the database. This figure has been taken from the database for the US and Canada. Pakistan’s distilleries are fairly small, and the individual CO2 emissions do not therefore exceed 34 Gg.
188.8.131.52 IRON AND STEEL
Pakistan has only one steel mill that actually manufactures iron products from iron ore. This facility is Pakistan Steel Mills (PSM) in Karachi, Sindh. Its products include billets, rolled products, and galvanized products. The emissions factor used is 1.27 Kg of CO2 per Kg of steel produced.
Plant-wise production data for steel melting and re-rolling mills in Pakistan was not available so they were excluded from the database. Their total emissions are however shown in Table 3.2. These facilities either purchase steel from PSM, or import it.
|Steel industry||Year||No. of facilities*||Total production||Emissions factor (Kg CO2/Kg steel)||CO2 emissions (t)|
|Steel melting||July ‘05–Nov ‘06||168||1,416,647||1.27||1,799,141.69|
|Steel re-rolling||July ‘05–Nov ‘06||300||1,378,570||1.27||1,750,783.90|
* Estimated figure
Source (production figures and number of facilities): Ministry of Industries and Production (MoIP) 2007
184.108.40.206 GAS PROCESSING
Pakistan possesses significant natural gas reserves. According to the Hydrocarbon Institute of Pakistan (HDIP), Pakistan’s recoverable reserves stand at 32.8 trillion cubic feet (TCF).
It was not possible to locate a suitable emissions factor for gas processing in Pakistan, and therefore we are unable to provide figures for CO2 emissions. Production figures in thousand cubic metres per year (Mm3/a) have however, been provided for the future.
Pakistan’s power plants are owned and operated by the Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA), the Karachi Electric Supply Corporation (KESC), and various independent power producers (IPPs). The technology utilized is steam turbo-generators and simple and combined gas turbines. Indigenous gas and coal are the primary fuels, but furnace oil (FO) and high-speed diesel (HSD) oil are also used.
Only fossil fuel fired power plants have been included in this section; hydro-power plants generate a large portion of Pakistan’s electric power. The vast majority of fossil fuel fired power plants in Pakistan utilize natural gas. Oil is a close second, and coal is used in only one location, the Table 3.3.(FBC) plant in Lakhra in district Dadu, Sindh. The emission factors for the various fuels are shown in
|Fuel type||Natural gas||FO||HSD oil||Coal|
|Emission factor (Kg CO2/KWh)||400||500||500||1000|
Source: IEA GHG CO2 emissions database v. 2006
Power plants typically comprise several ‘units’ that produce electricity, burning different fossil fuels. Where a unit generates power utilizing dual-fuel combustion, the power produced in GWh by each type of fuel have been separated, and the relevant emissions factor used.
Table 3.4. below summarises the fuel types used in Pakistan’s power plants. Natural gas is the most widely used fuel.
|Natural gas||FO||HSD oil||Coal|
|TPS Multan Cantt.||-||-||-||-|
|TPS Muzaffar Garh||x||x|
|TPS Guddu (Units 1-4)||x||x|
|TPS Guddu (Units 5-13)||x|
|GTPS Korangi Town||x||x|
|TPS Bin Qasim||x||x||x|
|AES Pak Gen||x|
|TNB Liberty Power||x|
Source: HDIP, 2005
Figure 3.1 shows the CO2 emissions of some of Pakistan’s larger power plants.
Pakistan possesses six oil refineries of varying capacities. Figure 3.2 shows their individual production and CO2 emissions for 2005.
ARL: Attock Refinery Limited; DRL: Dhodak Refinery Ltd.; NRL: National Refinery Ltd.; MCR: Mid-Country Refinery; PRL: Pakistan Refinery Ltd.
3.1.3 Emissions mapping
Table 3.5 below shows the estimated figures for CO2 emissions broken down by province, and further by cities and districts. It must be noted that these figures are based on immobile sources of CO2 that have been collected for the sectors included in this database only (ammonia, cement, ethanol, steel, power, and refineries).
As the table shows, Sindh is responsible for over 22 million tonnes of CO2 emissions, followed by the Punjab at over 17 million tonnes, then Balochistan and the North-west Frontier Province (NWFP).
Figure 3.3 shows the locations of CO2 sources in Pakistan.