Policy, legal, and regulatory developments

There has been a preliminary analysis of legal and regulatory issues and/or review in the majority of developing countries that have an interest in CCS, including Brazil, China, Botswana, India, Indonesia, Jordan, Kosovo, Malaysia, Philippines, South Africa, Thailand, Trinidad and Tobago, and Vietnam. Most of these preliminary analyses can be found in studies funded through APEC, the ADB, the CSLF, the Global CCS Institute, and the World Bank; some studies are still being finalised.

The depth of analysis differs between studies. For instance, in Botswana the World Bank on behalf of the Government is undertaking a CCS feasibility study to evaluate CCS opportunities in the country, as well as make recommendations as to an appropriate legal and regulatory environment. At a CCS workshop conducted in 2010, Botswana identified areas upon which regulations need to be defined, including possible leakage of CO2 and its impact on groundwater quality, CO2 streams for storage, suitability of storage sites, and permits for filling pore spaces.

In addition, the UAE commenced a study to develop a CCS Value Proposition taking into account the necessary CCS regulatory framework and international standards set by the UNFCCC.

In Latin America, CCS is seen as a crucial component in the region’s efforts to combat climate change, particularly for emerging oil-based economies such as Mexico, Brazil, and Venezuela. However, undertaking commercial-scale CCS projects in the region is difficult without a legal framework in Latin America. The Latin American Thematic Network on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage was formed to help facilitate the development of CCS. The Network seeks to promote collaboration and integrate CCS activities by scientists, research centres, and other agencies.

Refer to Appendix E for a summary of the key policy context in a number of countries including Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, and Trinidad and Tobago.