8.2 Overview of storage
Progress is being made globally in the deployment of large-scale geologic storage of CO2. For example, injection of CO2 commenced late in 2011 into a deep salineat the Basin – Decatur Project, the first saline injection program in the US. The first statement of and conditional regulatory approval has been awarded to the storage development plan for Shell’s project, that will proceed with targeting a deep saline reservoir in Alberta, Canada. In Europe, the ROAD project received a positive opinion by the EC concerning its planned storage site in an offshore depleted gas field – the first such opinion applied for under the CCS Directive. Additionally, the Peterhead CCS project received an
agreement for lease of Goldeneye, a depleted gas field 65 miles northeast of the Scottish coast. Advanced evaluation programs are ongoing into identify onshore and offshore storage targets in Western Australia, Victoria, and Queensland. The potential of storing CO2 through EOR as a means of CCS is growing in interest outside of the traditional regions in North America to areas such as Latin America, the Middle East, and, increasingly, China. Standards regarding geologic storage have been developed in North America and have undergone the first steps in transitioning to the ISO. Regional assessments that may help accelerate storage demonstration are in progress in Australia, North America (including Mexico), Brazil, Asia, South Africa, and Europe.
Ultimately, all types of geologic storage – deep saline reservoirs, depleted oil and gas formations, and CO2 EOR – are needed to reduce atmospheric emissions of CO2 from industrial processes (Figure 59). The majority of planned and operational projects are currently in OECD countries, with a significant shortfall in non-OECD regions. To help develop and deploy CCS to the scale required, more must be done to improve knowledge of the subsurface in the vicinity of large CO2 emitters to improve development time for future commercial CCS projects.
FIGURE 59 Status of current and planned storage projects