2.1 An overview of large-scale integrated CCS projects

The Global CCS Institute has identified 75 LSIPs as at September 201216 of these are currently operating or in construction (‘Execute’), with a combined capture capacity of around 36 million tonnes per annum (Mtpa) of CO2A further 59 LSIPs are in the planning stages of development (‘Identify’, ‘Evaluate’, and ‘Define’), with an additional potential capture capacity of more than 110 Mtpa (Figure 8). A map of the LSIPs is displayed at Figure 9, where the projects are identified by a reference number that corresponds to the detailed project listing in Appendix C.

There has been a net increase of one LSIP since the release of the Global Status of CCS: 2011 report. Nine new projects were identified while eight were cancelled, put on hold or restructured. An overview of these key project developments is provided in Section 2.2.

FIGURE 8 LSIPs by asset lifecycle and region/country

FIGURE 9 World map of LSIPs

During the past three years, there has been a slow but steady increase in LSIPs entering construction, as demonstrated in Figure 10 There are now eight LSIPs under construction around the world. These provide examples of viable business cases for CCS technology given specific circumstances. In particular:

  • all but one of those LSIPs are found in North America (four in the US and three in Canada), where project proponents benefit from an established CO2-based EOR market and the availability of substantial public funding;
  • only two projects are in the power generation sector (Boundary Dam in Canada and Kemper County in the US), and both include the sale of CO2 for EOR;
  • two have been identified as having started construction since the previous status report (Air Products Steam Methane Reformer EOR Project in the US and Quest in Canada); and
  • three include the sequestration of CO2 in deep saline formations (the Gorgon Carbon Dioxide Injection Project in Australia, Archer Daniels Midland’s (ADM’s) Illinois Industrial CCS (ICCS) project in the US and Quest in Canada).

FIGURE 10 LSIPs by asset lifecycle and year

The Global CCS Institute estimates that up to five additional LSIPs could reach a final investment decision (FID) by the end of 2012 – three of which are located in North America, one in Europe, and one in the Middle East. These are:

  • Texas Clean Energy Project in the US;
  • NRG Energy Parish Project in the US;
  • Alberta Carbon Trunk Line (ACTL) with North West Sturgeon Refinery CO2 Stream in Canada;
  • Rotterdam Opslag en Afvang Demonstratieproject (ROAD) in the Netherlands; and
  • Emirates Steel Industries in the United Arab Emirates.

Table 1 lists the 16 LSIPs in the Operate and Execute stages. These projects have a combined capture and storage capacity of approximately 36 Mtpa, equivalent to the emissions of more than seven million cars per year and roughly equivalent to the current annual emissions of Singapore or New Zealand (United Nations Statistics Division 2012). This highlights the significant contribution that CCS can already bring as part of a portfolio of CO2 abatement technologies.

TABLE 1 LSIPs in the Operate and Execute stages (‘Active’)

NAME COUNTRY CAPTURE TYPE VOLUME CO2 (MTPA) STORAGE TYPE DATE OF OPERATION
Operate stage
Val Verde Gas Plants United States Pre-combustion (gas processing) 1.3 Mtpa EOR 1972
Enid Fertilizer CO2-EOR Project United States Pre-combustion (fertiliser) 0.68 Mtpa EOR 1982
Shute Creek Gas Processing Facility United States Pre-combustion (gas processing) 7Mtpa EOR 1986
Sleipner CO2 Injection Norway Pre-combustion (gas processing) 1 Mtpa (+0.2 Mtpa in construction) Deep saline formation 1996
Great Plains Synfuel Plant and Weyburn–Midale Project United States/Canada Pre-combustion (synfuels) 3 Mtpa EOR 2000
In Salah CO2 Injection Algeria Pre-combustion (gas processing) 1 Mtpa Deep saline formation 2004
Snøhvit CO2 Injection Norway Pre-combustion (gas processing) 0.7 Mtpa Deep saline formation 2008
Century Plant United States Pre-combustion (gas processing) 5 Mtpa (+ 3.5 Mtpa in construction) EOR 2010
Execute stage
Air Products Steam Methane Reformer EOR Project United States Post-combustion (hydrogen production) 1 Mtpa EOR 2012
Lost Cabin Gas Plant United States Pre-combustion (gas processing) 1 Mtpa EOR 2012
Illinois Industrial CCS Project United States Industrial separation (ethanol) 1 Mtpa Deep saline formation 2013
ACTL with Agrium CO2 Stream Canada Pre-combustion (fertiliser) 0.59 Mtpa EOR 2014
Boundary Dam Integrated CCS Demonstration Project Canada Post-combustion (power generation) 1 Mtpa EOR 2014
Kemper County IGCC Project United States Pre-combustion (power generation) 3.5 Mtpa EOR 2014
Gorgon Carbon Dioxide Injection Project Australia Pre-combustion (gas processing) 3.4–4.1 Mtpa Deep saline formation 2015
Quest Canada Pre-combustion (hydrogen production) 1.08 Mtpa Deep saline formation 2015