- The identified 75 large-scale integrated CCS projects globally, as at September 2012, a net increase of one project since the release of the Global Status of CCS: 2011 report.
- Nine newly-identified projects were added to the listings and another eight projects were removed due to being cancelled, put on hold, or restructured. The reasons for cancellation or being put on hold are diverse and range from insufficient revenues for carbon sales to inadequate storage regulations.
- More than half of all newly-identified are located in China. All newly-identified projects are investigating EOR options, at least as an additional source of revenue.
- In general, moderate progress was made by projects this year, with those at the more advanced planning stages making the most progress. There have been two additional projects identified as under construction, in the US and in Canada.
- The first peak in large-scale projects coming online that was expected to occur in 2015–16 has shifted over the past two years and is now projected to start from 2018–20.
The Global CCS Institute’s monitoring and analytic efforts are focused on LSIPs, as projects at this scale constitute a reliable indicator of the demonstration of CCS technology globally, and have the critical mass needed to achieve substantial reductions in CO2 emissions.
This chapter provides an overview of the current status of LSIPs globally, as well as key developments that have occurred since the release of the Global Status of CCS: 2011 report, released in October 2011. This analysis is based on the Global CCS Institute’s annual survey undertaken from March to June 2012, and includes comparisons with the Global CCS Institute’s 2011, 2010, and 2009 Global Status of CCS reports (Global CCS Institute 2011a, 2011b, and Worley. Parsons et al. 2009). The projects survey process is described at Appendix A and a detailed explanation of the stages in the asset lifecycle of a project is included at Appendix B.
LSIPs are defined as projects involving the capture, transport and storage of CO2 at a scale of:
- at least 800,000 tonnes of CO2 annually for a coal-based power plant; or
- at least 400,000 tonnes of CO2 annually for other emission-intensive industrial facilities (including natural gas-based power generation).
The thresholds listed above correspond to the minimum volumes of CO2 typically emitted by commercial-scale power plants and other industrial facilities. Projects at this scale must store anthropogenic CO2 permanently in geologic storage sites to qualify as LSIPs, and projects that involve EOR using anthropogenic CO2 can also satisfy this definition. Since there is currently no clear standard or regulatory guidance on monitoring requirements involving CO2 storage associated with EOR, criteria regarding monitoring expectations for CO2 EOR are not included in the current LSIP definition. Generally, CO2 EOR projects will undertake some monitoring and the monitoring methods will be site-specific.
This definition of LSIPs will be regularly reviewed and adapted as CCS matures; as clear CCS legislation, regulation, and standards emerge; and as discussions progress on project boundaries, lifecycle analysis, and acceptable use of CO2.
Additionally, there are many projects around the world of a smaller scale (or which focus on only part of the CCS chain) that are important for research and development (R&D), for demonstrating individual elements of CCS and building local capacity. A sample of such projects that were included in the Institute’s project survey this year is provided at Appendix A.