3.6 CO2 capture from industrial processes
There were minimal changes made to the method in which the CO2 capture cases for industrial processes were analysed. The capital and operating costs were updated from the 2009 figures, which resulted in an increase of approximately 1 per cent.
As with the initial economic assessment in 2009, the 2010 CCS economic analysis was applied to select industrial processes to determine the cost parameters for blast furnace steel production, cement production, natural gas processing, and fertiliser (ammonia) production. The specific emission intensities, typical production rates, annual CO2 flow rates, and other parameters from current commercial practice were used as a basis (where available) and are listed in Table 3-5. Steel and cement production require both capture and compression while natural gas processing and fertiliser production are processes that require CO2 separation from a gas stream. Thus, these processes only need the addition of drying and CO2 compression.
Table 3-5 Emissions intensities, processing parameters, and commercial application examples for industrial processes
|Blast Furnace||Cement||Natural Gas Processing||Fertiliser Production|
|CO2 emission intensity||2tonne CO2/tonne steel||0.83tonne CO2/tonne cement||0.13kg CO2/Sm3natural gas||0.57tonne CO2/tonne ammonia|
|Product production rate||40steel tonne/hour||40cement tonne/hour||1,100Sm3/hour46GJ/hour||46tonne ammonia/hour|
|Annual CO2 flow ofsingle plant (tonne/year)||706,000||296,000||1,000,000||194,000|
|Commercial example||No commercialoperating facility||No commercialoperating facility||Sleipner||Coffeyvillegasification facility|
The energy for capture (primarily solvent regeneration) and CO2 compression can be obtained through heat or electricity generated by the system or through purchased power. This uncertainty can lead to difficulties in the interpretation of the analyses. In this assessment, the following assumptions were made.
- The cost of the energy to meet the auxiliary load was determined from the natural gas cost in the region with 50 per cent conversion efficiency.
- The CO2 from the generation of heat or electricity used by the capture system was not included in the calculation.
The CO2 flows from the individual industrial processes, less than 1Mt per year of CO2, are smaller than those for standard power generation plants. Therefore, it was assumed that a multi-user pipeline and storage option would be available. For storage and transportation, costs of US$4/tonne of CO2 and US$7/tonne of CO2 were used, respectively. The basis for the cost is discussed in the following sections.